Fourth Regiment Massachusetts Volunteer Cavalry
Three Years

Acton men who served in the 4th Regiment Massachusetts Volunteer Cavalry:

Horace E. Dupee, Co. K

Penniman, Orenzo W., unassigned

Regimental history from Massachusetts Soldiers, Sailors, and Marines in the Civil War, compiled and published by the Adjutant General:

The 4th Regt. Mass. Vol. Cav. was organized under Special Order No. 70, War De­partment, dated Feb. 12, 1864, by the consolidation of the Independent Battalion, Mass. Vol. Cav. (formerly the 3d Battalion, 1st Regt. Mass. Vol.. Cav.) with a new battalion of veteran cavalry which was raised in Massachusetts during the winter of 1863-64. Finally enough men were enlisted to make up two new battalions, the 2d, composed of Com­panies "A", "B", "C", and "D", commanded by Maj. David B. Keith, and the 3d, composed of Companies "E", "F", "G", and "H", commanded by Maj. Louis Cabot. The Independent Battalion, commanded by Maj. Atherton A. Stevens, became the 1st, and was composed of Companies "I", "K", "L", and "M", thus retaining its old com­pany letters. Arnold A. Rand, who had served as a captain in the 1st Mass. Cavalry and had had other valuable military training, was commissioned colonel, Jany. 22, 1864.

By referring to the historical sketch of the 1st Mass. Cavalry it will be seen that the 3d Battalion of that regiment was detached by Special Order No. 346, War Department, dated Aug. 4, 1863, and had been made an independent battalion. During the latter part of the winter of 1863-64, this command had been operating in Florida, being engaged Feb. 10, 1864, at Barber's Place near Lake City, Fla. with a loss of one killed and 11 wounded, and again at Olustee, Fla., Feb. 20, 1864, losing six men wounded. Thus it was operating in Florida when Special Order No. 70 was issued making it a part of the newly organized 4th Regt. Mass. Vol. Cav.

The 2d Battalion sailed for Hilton Head, S. C., Mar. 20, 1864, arriving April 1. The 3d Battalion sailed April 23, but on its arrival at Hilton Head it was sent back to Fort Monroe to report to General Butler, arriving about May 3. On May 8 the 1st Battalion arrived at Bermuda Hundred coming from the Department of the South. From May 9 to June 16, it participated in the operations on the Bermuda Hundred front and before Petersburg. Late in May the 3d Battalion came up to City Point on the James, Companies "E" and "H" being assigned for duty at 18th Corps Headquarters, while Companies "F" and "G" joined the 1st Battalion and were assigned to duty at 10th Corps Headquarters. These two battalions were under the personal command of Co1. Arnold A. Rand and were engaged in operations on the east front of Petersburg and Rich­mond throughout the summer and fall of 1864 and the winter following.

The 2d Battalion under Major Keith remained in the Department of the South with headquarters at Hilton Head. A detachment took part in an expedition up the Ashepoo River in May, 1864, which ended disastrously with the loss of a transport and 74 horses. Another detachment went on an expedition to St. John's Island early in July, partici­pating in several skirmishes and suffering slight loss.

Meanwhile, on July 6, Companies "B" and "D" under Captain Morton had sailed for Jacksonville, Fla. A detachment from this force went on an expedition to Palatka, Fla., where on Aug. 5 they lost one man wounded and a lieutenant and five men captured, all of Co. "D". At Gainesville, Fla., Aug. 17, these two companies, "B" and "D", suf­fered a further loss of two killed and 50 prisoners. About the middle of October, Major Keith resigned and was succeeded by Major Webster. In the latter part of this month the entire 2d Battalion was in Florida and on Oct. 24 was engaged at Big Gum Creek, losing three killed, six wounded, and 22 prisoners nine of whom were also wounded.

Two companies of the 2d Battalion spent the winter near Jacksonville, Fla., while the other two wintered at Deveaux's Neck about twenty-five miles up the river from Hil­ton Head, S. C. Each detachment was active in its sphere of operations in the spring of 1865, but suffered few casualties.

The 1st and 3d Battalions on the Petersburg front were not actively engaged during the winter of 1864-65. They were mostly assigned to duty at corps headquarters.

The opening of the spring campaign of 1865 found the regiment much scattered. The 2d Battalion was still in the Department of the South, two companies being near Hilton Head, S. C. and the remaining two near Jacksonville, Fla. The 1st and 3d Bat­talions were in Virginia. Companies "F" and "K" were on duty at the headquarters of the 24th Corps, Companies "E" and" H" at the headquarters of the 25th Corps, Companies "I", "L", and" M" at the headquarters of General Ord, commander of the Army of the James, while Company "G" was at or near Williamsburg.

Companies" E" and" H" commanded by Maj. Atherton A. Stevens were the first Union troops to enter Richmond on the morning of April 3, 1865, and their guidons were the first National colors to be raised on the Confederate capitol. The Confederate flag which was taken down was preserved in the family of Major Stevens until 1927 when it was returned to the State of Virginia.

Colonel Washburn with Companies "I", "L", and "M" marched to Burkeville in pursuit of the fleeing Confederates, reaching that place April 5. Next day Colonel Wash­burn with these three companies marched northward to High Bridge over the Appomat­tox River near Farmville, he having been ordered to burn the structure and thus hamper the retreat of the Confederates. Here he became engaged with a large force of the enemy losing eight out of the twelve officers engaged, all being wounded, Colonel Washburn and two others mortally.

Soon after the close of hostilities the scattered squadrons of the regiment were united at Richmond, Va., and there remained doing guard duty in the city through the summer and fall of 1865. On November 14, they were mustered out of the Federal service and started northward. Arriving in Boston Harbor, the regiment encamped at Galloup's Island until November 26, when the men were paid off and discharged.

Regimental history from A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion, by Frederick Dyer:

    Organized at Readville December 26, 1863, to February 8, 1864. 1st Battalion formerly Independent Battalion, Massachusetts Cavalry, was assigned as Companies "I," "K," "L" and "M" February 12, 1864. Attached to Light Brigade, District of Florida, 10th Corps, Dept. of the South, to April, 1864. Unattached, Dept. of Virginia and North Carolina, 10th, 18th and 24th Army Corps, and 25th Army Corps, Dept. of Virginia and North Carolina, to August, 1865. Dept. of Virginia to November, 1865.

    SERVICE--Expedition from Jacksonville, Fla., to Lake City, Fla., February 7-22, 1864. Battle of Olustee, Fla., February 20. McGrath's Creek, Cedar Run, March 1. Cedar Run April 2. Ordered to Bermuda Hundred, Va., arriving there May 8. Operations against Fort Darling April 12-16. Bermuda Hundred May 20-30. Jordan's Crossing and Petersburg June 9. Siege operations against Petersburg and Richmond June 16, 1864, to April 2, 1865. At Headquarters, Dept. of Virginia and North Carolina, June 21 to August 15, 1864. At Headquarters, 10th Army Corps, till December, 1864. Demonstration on north side of the James August 1320. Strawberry Plains August 14-18. Flusser's Mills August 18-19. (Co. "M" detached at Harrison's Landing on outpost duty August 23, 1864, to March, 1865.) Before Petersburg August 24 to September 28. Chaffin's Farm, New Market Heights, September 28-30. Harrison's Landing October 13 (Co. "M"). Fair Oaks October 27-28. Expedition into Charles City and Henrico Counties November 1-5. Duty before Richmond till March, 1865. At Headquarters, Dept. of Virginia and North Carolina, December, 1864, to April, 1865 (Cos. "I," "L" and "M"). At Headquarters, 24th Army Corps, December, 1864, to April, 1865 (Co. "K"). Appomattox Campaign March 28-April 9, 1865. Fall of Petersburg April 2. High Bridge, Farmville, April 6-7. Appomattox Court House April 9. Surrender of Lee and his army. Duty at Richmond till November -.

    2nd Battalion.-(Cos. "A," "B," "C" and "D.") Sailed from Boston for Hilton Head, S. C., on Steamer "Western Metropolis" March 20, 1864, arriving April 1. Picket and outpost duty at Hilton Head till June. Expeditij)n to Ashepoo River May 22-26 (2 Cos.). 2 Companies moved to Jacksonville, Fla., June 6-8, and duty there till January, 1865, participating in skirmish at Front Creek July 15, 1864. Raid from Jacksonville upon Baldwin July 23-28. Skirmish at South Fork, Black Creek, July 24. St. Mary's Trestle July 26. Raid on Florida Railroad August 15-19. Gainesville August 17. Magnolia October 24. Gum Swamp October 24. 2 Companies on duty at Hilton Head, S. C., June to November, 1864. Expedition to John's Island, S. C., July 2-10. Operations against Battery Pringle July 4-9. Expedition to Boyd's Neck November 29-30. Battle of Honey Hill November 30. Expedition to Deveaux's Neck December 1-6. March to Charleston January 15-February 23, 1865. Potter's Expedition to Camden, S. C., April 5-25. Statesburg April 15. Occupation of Camden April 17. Boykin's Mills April 18. Denkln's Mills April 19. Beech Creek, near Statesburg, April 19. Duty in the Dept. of the South tilI mustered out.

    3rd Battalion.-(Cos. "E," "F," "G" and "H.") Hailed from Boston for Hilton Head, S. C., on Steamer "Western Metropolis" April 23, 1864, arriving April 27. Moved to Newport News, Va., May 1-3; thence to City Point May 23, and duty there scouting, picketing and on the fortifications till June 16. Duty at Bermuda Hundred till August 23. Companies "E" and "H" at Headquarters of 18th Army Corps June 16-December 4, and at Headquarters of 25th Army Corps December, 1864, to April, 1865. Company "F" at Headquarters of 24th Army Corps December, 1864, to April, 1865. Company "G" detached at Yorktown and Williamsburg, Va., August 23, 1864, to April, 1865. Occupation of Richmond April 3, 186f> (Cos. "E" and "H"). Company "F" on Appomattox Campaign March 28-April 9. High Bridge, Farmville, April 6-7. Appomattox Court House April 9. Surrender of Lee and his army. Regiment mustered out November 14, 1865. Discharged at Boston November 26, 1865.

    Regiment lost during service 4 Officers and 28 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 2 Officers and 128 Enlisted men by disease. Total 162.

See also:

Carter, Robert Goldthwaite. Record of the Military Service of First Lieutenant and Brevet Captain Robert Goldthwaite Carter, U.S. Army, 1862-1876. Washington, D.C.: Gibson Bros., Printers and Bookbinders, 1904.

United States National Archives and Records Service. Compiled Records Showing Service of Military Units in Volunteer Union Organizations - Massachusetts First Cavalry through Fourth Cavalry, First Heavy Artillery First Battalion, Heavy Artillery Second Heavy Artillery.